The Attraction Mix
This is your big decision: what kind of attractions are you going to offer, and at what level of quality and professionalism?
Part of this depends on your competition, and just how good you need to make the park to be the best in its area. For example, today, Universal Studios and particularly in Florida, is known for it's high tech, story oriented rides. But, if the Disney company hadn't beaten Universal to the punch and opened their MGM Studio Tour before Universal's in Orlando, none of those rides would have ever been there.
Universal had planned an upgraded version of their California tour, with a front lot "walking tour" with shows for entertainment, and a super-duper version of the Tram Tour on the back lot. In fact, before we opened Universal, Florida in 1990, the company had never before built a ride, and didn't much want to be in that business. But Disney got to Orlando first with their own improved version of the Universal Hollywood tour. The competition, Disney, had stolen Universal's thunder, so the only way to compete was with high tech, state of the art rides like "King Kong," and "Back to the Future."
In the long run, it was good for both companies and good for the theme park business, because the state of the art of theme park attractions took a huge leap forward.
Now, everyone doesn't have a Disney park next door, so not everyone needs a "Back to the Future" Ride. But you are going to need something fresh and new, and you have to consider the big factor when you are picking your attraction mix: demographics.
Demographics, the age and income characteristics of the guests, follow attraction mix, and vice versa. If you want a lot of teenagers, you put in a lot of roller coasters. Keep in mind though: even though you're targeting coaster fans DOES NOT mean you sacrifice on theming and landscaping. Families like indoor shows, if for no other reason than they are air-conditioned and adults enjoy being able to sit for a while. Additionally sometimes, the theme park is the sole source of live shows/theatre in the vicinity, so this draws those people that don't feel like going to a big city to find that type of entertainment . And "the whole family" likes high tech, story-telling dark rides and simulators. So your attraction mix determines your demographics, or vice versa.
But probably the biggest factor in determining your Master Plan is the personality of the management. If they are "ride guys" who like those "white knucklers," then at the end of the day you are going to end up with a park full of thrill rides. If they are from "show business" you'll probably be exploiting some sort of intellectual properties (books, movies, films, etc), like we did at Six Flags with the Batman Stunt Show. If they are risk takers, your park will feature custom, one of a kind rides, or if they are more conservative, they'll guide you in the direction of selecting proven, off the shelf equipment. In theme park design, as in most other fields, you follow the Golden Rule: He Who Has The Gold Rules. But it's essential that the theme park designer educate the management so they understand the downside of under cutting the theming, landscaping and ride variety---eventually it will catch up with you and guests will stop coming in DROVES.thus the "gold" dwindles.
You will notice that I did not mention budget as a primary factor in determining the Master Plan of your park. That's because budget follows the risk profile of the management-the high rollers will go for the biggest budget they can justify, the more conservative managers will pinch the pennies. There's no one answer, as both well funded, and very lightly funded parks can achieve success. For example, at Six Flags when they were owned by Time Warner in the mid nineties, all the Batman, Looney Tunes, Dennis The Menace, Police Academy and other movie themes were added, increasing both attendance and per capita income, while the capital budget was actually CUT.
When you put all these factors together, and your park is sized properly for the market, your attraction mix is right, you have just the right amount of food and merchandise, and the parking lot is big enough to handle your largest predicted crowd: look out! It's probably going to be a big hit, and the owner will be asking you why you didn't make the darn thing a little bigger!
And that's the last element of a good Master Plan: room for expansion. Given the fact that you are going to have to add new attractions after you open, having space for them without making the place so darn big that you exhaust the guests trying to walk the park, is quite a trick. But a good Master Plan allows plenty of space for new rides, shows or even whole "lands." When you don't have enough potential for well-themed additions, you end up planting your new roller coaster over a parking lot, which can ruin the whole effect of adding a new ride.
There are a million factors that you need to take into account when developing a good master plan. For instance, food concessions need to be plentiful and located in the busy sections of the park, so that guests are not waiting in long lines. There are too many of these factors to delve into in one short article, but there is one final design element that should be mentioned. Probably the most important factor in making sure your guests enjoy their day at the park is employee training, so don't forget to design a good "cast center" where your employees can learn what it takes to serve the guests. You can have the best attractions in the world, but if your staff is rude, indifferent, or incompetent, all the rest of your design goes right down the drain.
If you take all of these factors into account, however, you'll have one heck of a park.
So, you want to design a theme park? Well, now you know a few tricks of the trade, so have at it!
To learn more about theme park master planning, or to inquire about a possible project, contact Peter Alexander of the Totally Fun Company.
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"Theme Park Master Planning" used by Permission. Copyright 2003 Peter Alexander, All Rights Reserved.